A recent clinical trial has found that the Mediterranean diet is more effective than a low-fat diet in preventing major cardiovascular events in patients with established coronary heart disease. The study, known as the CORDIOPREV study involved 1002 patients with a follow-up period of 7 years.
The patients were randomly assigned to either a Mediterranean diet or a low-fat diet intervention in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome assessed by intention to treat was a composite of major cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction, revascularization, ischemic stroke, peripheral artery disease, and cardiovascular death.
The study showed that out of the 1,002 participants, 198 had major cardiovascular events. Of those 198, 87 were in the Mediterranean diet group and 111 were in the low-fat diet group. The rate of these events per 1,000 person-years was 28.1 for the Mediterranean diet group and 37.7 for the low-fat group.
The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios favored the Mediterranean diet, ranging from 0.719 to 0.753. These benefits were more noticeable in men, with 67 out of 414 men in the Mediterranean diet group having major cardiovascular events compared to 94 out of 413 men in the low-fat diet group. The multiadjusted hazard ratio was 0.669. In women, there was no significant difference between the two diets.
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These findings suggest that the Mediterranean diet is superior to a low-fat diet in preventing major cardiovascular events in patients with established coronary heart disease. The Mediterranean diet is characterized by the high consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, nuts, legumes, fish, and olive oil while limiting red meat and processed foods. This diet is known to be rich in healthy fats, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, which can promote heart health and reduce inflammation.
The study's results are relevant to clinical practice, supporting the use of the Mediterranean diet in secondary prevention. The trial infers that patients with established coronary heart disease should be advised to follow a Mediterranean diet to reduce their risk of major cardiovascular events. The Mediterranean diet is a safe, effective, and sustainable way to improve heart health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
The CORDIOPREV study provides strong evidence that the Mediterranean diet is superior to a low-fat diet in preventing major cardiovascular events in patients with established coronary heart disease. The study's results are relevant to clinical practice, supporting the use of the Mediterranean diet in secondary prevention.
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