Obesity is a significant health problem that is becoming more and more prevalent worldwide. It is characterized by excessive body fat, usually from an unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, and other environmental and genetic factors. Obesity is associated with severe health problems, including heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, certain cancers, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, and more. It can also negatively affect the quality of life, self-esteem, and mental health. Obesity is a growing public health concern, and efforts to prevent and manage it are essential for individual and societal well-being.
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), such as liraglutide, have been shown to manage obesity and diabetes effectively. These drugs work by activating a receptor in the body that helps control blood sugar and appetite. In addition to assisting people in losing weight, liraglutide has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events like heart attacks and strokes in people with diabetes. While it is not fully understood how liraglutide achieves these benefits, it appears to positively affect several other health factors, such as cholesterol and other cardiovascular risk markers.
Bariatric surgery is a very effective treatment for severe obesity, resulting in significant and long-lasting weight loss. Studies suggest that the changes in the body's metabolism and lipid profile after bariatric surgery could play an essential role in mediating outcomes. While bariatric surgery can be an effective tool for weight loss and improving obesity-related health problems, it is crucial to understand the potential risks and long-term lifestyle changes necessary for success.
Researchers conducted three clinical studies on people with obesity or type 2 diabetes to study the effects of liraglutide and two kinds of weight loss surgery, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy, on the participants' metabolome, which is the set of small molecules in the body. The study took place over twelve weeks, and participants underwent various tests to evaluate changes in their metabolome.
Bariatric surgery resulted in greater weight loss and more significant metabolic changes compared to liraglutide therapy four weeks after surgery. Both groups observed substantial changes in lipoprotein parameters, inflammatory markers, ketone bodies, citrate, and branched-chain amino acids. Glucose levels were significantly reduced in all intervention groups but mainly in the group receiving GLP-1RA treatment.
In conclusion, the study suggests that the early changes observed in the metabolome, lipid, and lipoprotein profiles after receiving liraglutide or undergoing bariatric surgery are similar and mainly due to changes in body weight. Specific modifications observed in the short term after surgery may reflect the patient's diet and calorie intake changes. The study also identified differences between the two types of bariatric surgery, but further research is needed to confirm and extend these findings. The study's results may improve our understanding of the effects of these interventions on our bodies and promote personalized healthcare management in the future.