Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common hormonal disorders in women of reproductive age. It presents with symptoms in approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age (12-45 years old) and is thought to be one of the leading causes of female subfertility. It affects the action of insulin and hinders its mechanism of action.
Metformin is a drug that is commonly prescribed in patients with type 2 Diabetes. It improves the action of insulin, raising glucose uptake in the body and decreasing new glucose synthesis in the liver. This drug has gained popularity in recent years in women because by reduces insulin resistance in women who have PCOS and it has been said metformin reduces the risk of losing viable pregnancy at the early stage.
To assess the credibility, safety, and efficacy of metformin in this regard, a clinical trial was run with 166 women using a randomized interventional method. Among these 166 women, 83 were prescribed metformin in their early pregnancy stage and they were asked to continue metformin until the end of their first trimester at 14 weeks, and the remaining 83 women were to stop to take metformin at the diagnosis of pregnancy, around 5-6 weeks. The aim of this trial was to study and assess the effect of metformin use in pregnant women with PCOS to see if it reduces early pregnancy loss or not.
The result showed that 9 out of 83 women who were taking metformin in their first trimester developed early miscarriage, whereas 35 out of 83 women who stopped metformin at the diagnosis of their pregnancy developed early miscarriage. Meaning 35% of women who lost their viable pregnancy belonged to the group who stopped taking metformin in early pregnancy. In comparison to that, only 11% of women who took metformin throughout the whole first trimester had miscarriages.